What is Anaphylaxis?
Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction and is potentially life threatening. It must be treated as a medical emergency, requiring immediate treatment and urgent medical attention.
Anaphylaxis is a generalised allergic reaction, which often involves more than one body system (e.g. skin, respiratory, gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular). A severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis usually occurs within 20 minutes to 2 hours of exposure to the trigger and can rapidly become life threatening.
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Common triggers of severe allergies or anaphylaxis include:
Milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, fish, shellfish, wheat and soy are the most common food triggers, which cause 90 percent of allergic reactions; however, any food can trigger anaphylaxis. It is important to understand that in some people even very small amounts of food can cause a life-threatening reaction. Some extremely sensitive individuals can react to just the smell of particular foods being cooked (e.g. fish) or even kissing someone who has eaten the food they’re allergic to.
Bites and Stings
Bee, wasp and jack jumper ant stings are the most common triggers of anaphylaxis to insect stings. Ticks, green ants and fire ants can also trigger anaphylaxis in susceptible individuals.
Medications, both over the counter and prescribed, can cause life threatening allergic reactions. Individuals can also have anaphylactic reactions to herbal or ‘alternative’ medicines.
Other triggers such as latex or exercise induced anaphylaxis are less common. Occasionally the trigger cannot be identified, despite extensive investigation.
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What is Anaphylaxis Help Sheet
A person who is suspected of having a food allergy should obtain a referral to see an allergy specialist for correct diagnosis, advice on preventative management and emergency treatment. Those diagnosed with severe food or insect allergy must carry emergency medication as prescribed as well as an Action Plan for Anaphylaxis signed by their doctor. Food allergic children who have a history of eczema and/or asthma are at higher risk of severe allergic reactions. Administration of adrenaline is first line treatment of anaphylaxis.
Management & Treatment
Anaphylaxis is a preventable and treatable event. Knowing the triggers is the first step in prevention. Children and caregivers need to be educated on how to avoid food allergens and/or other triggers.
However, because accidental exposure is a reality, children and caregivers need to be able to recognise symptoms of an anaphylaxis and be prepared to administer adrenaline according to the individual’s Action Plan for Anaphylaxis. Research shows that fatalities more often occur away from home and are associated with either not using or a delay in the use of adrenaline.
In Australia, adrenaline can be purchased on the PBS in the form of autoinjectors known as the EpiPen® . More information on prescription is available through ASCIA www.allergy.org.au The adrenaline autoinjectors are intramuscular injections that contain a single, pre-measured dose of adrenaline that is given for the emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions. The devices are for use by lay people and is available in two doses, EpiPen® or EpiPen® Jr.
Please consult your doctor for more information on allergic reactions, accurate diagnosis and management strategies
Food Allergy Basics
A food allergy is an immune system response to a food protein that the body mistakenly believes is harmful. When the individual eats food containing that protein, the immune system releases massive amounts of chemicals, triggering symptoms that can affect a person’s breathing, gastrointestinal tract, skin and/or heart.
Symptoms of food allergy can include; hives, swelling of the lips, face and eyes, swelling of the tongue, breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, vomiting or a sudden drop in blood pressure. If left untreated, these symptoms can be fatal.
It is estimated that up to 2% of adults, 1 in 10 babies* and 6% of children have food allergy and some of them will experience a life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
There are more than 170 foods known to have triggered severe allergic reactions. Examples include kiwi fruit, banana, chicken, mustard and celery.
Currently, there is no cure for food allergy. Avoidance of the food is the only way to prevent a reaction.
Adrenaline is the first line treatment for severe allergic reactions and can be administered via an auto-injector called the EpiPen®.
Food allergy is the leading cause of (severe reactions) anaphylaxis outside the hospital setting.
Approximately 10 people die from anaphylactic reactions each year in Australia and some of these may have been triggered by food.
* Osborne et al. Prevalence of challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy using population-based sampling and predetermined challenge criteria in infants. J Allergy Clin Immunolol 2011; 127: 668-676 Permission is granted to make cop
Content updated November 2015